The province of Tehran has over 12 million inhabitants and is Iran's
most densely-populated region.
The highest point of the province is Mount Damavand, at an elevation of
5678 m above sea level; the lowest point of the province is the plains
of Varamin, 790 m above sea level. The province contains more than 330
square kilometres of forests, and over 12'800 square kilometres of
The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jajrud River.
Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz
Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat,
Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr
Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of
Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.
Environmentally speaking, the climate of Tehran province in the southern
areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and
semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The
hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when
temperatures range from 28°-30°C and the coldest months experience 1°C
around December–January, but at certain times in winter it can reach
-15°C. Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. Average annual
rainfall is approximately 200 mm, the maximum being during the winter
season. On the whole the province has a semi arid, steppe climate in the
south and an alpine climate in the north.
Tehran features a semi-arid, continental climate. Tehran's climate is
largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz
Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be
generally described as mild in the spring, hot and dry in the summer,
pleasant in the autumn, and cold in the winter. As a large city with
significant differences in elevation among various districts, the
weather is often cooler in the hilly north as compared to the flat
southern part of Tehran. Summer is usually hot and dry with very little
rain, but relative humidity is generally low and the nights are cool.
The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs from late-autumn
to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month
is July (min. temp. 26°C, max. temp. 36°C) and the coldest is January
(min. temp. -1°C, max. temp. 8°C).
The Alborz mountain range definitely moderates climate. Humid and rainy
winds also moderate fiery heat of Kavir, but don't deactivate its
effect. There are some geographical tourism appeals in Tehran province
Sangan Waterfall is a beautiful waterfall located near Sangan Village, about 20 km northwest of Tehran.
Evin is a neighbourhood in the north of Tehran. The district consists of
an old section, filled with orchards and gardens of old houses, and a
new section, with towering high rises and gleaming skyscrapers. It is
adjacent to Shahid Beheshti University campus and is notorious for the
nearby Evin Prison; it is minutes away from the popular and beautiful
Darakeh hiking trail. Hiking is a national pastime in Iran, and this
trail thus brings many tourists to the area.
Jajrood River is a river of northern Iran. It flows through the Alborz mountain range.
Darakeh is a neighbourhood located north of the provincial capital of
Tehran, Iran. It is near Evin and Velenjak, and it has a very beautiful
Road 59 (Jadeh Chaloos) is the most important road for Tehrani people.
Because on weekends many people go to north of Iran and it is one of the
most crowded roads in Iran.
Mount Damavand, also known as Donbavand, a potentially active volcano
and the highest peak in Iran, has a special place in Persian mythology
and folklore. Located in the middle Alborz Range, adjacent to Vararu,
Sesang, Gol-e Zard and Mianrud, it is the highest point in the Middle
East and the highest volcano in all of Asia. It is a potentially active
volcano, since there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting
sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007.
The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in
Amol county, Mazandaran, 66 km northeast of Tehran. Damavand is, as any
cursory reading of Persian literature will indicate, the Mount Olympus
of Persian mythology.
Damavand is the symbol of Iranian resistance against despotism and
foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and
mythology, the three-headed dragon Azi Dahaka was chained within Mount
Damavand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version
of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhak was also chained in a cave
somewhere in Mount Damavand after being defeated by Kaveh and Fereyd?n.
The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh.
Mt Damavand has some thermal springs with therapeutic qualities. These
mineral hot springs are mainly located on the volcano's flanks and at
the base, giving evidence of volcanic heat comparatively near the
surface of the earth. While no historic eruptions have been recorded,
hot springs at the base and on the flanks, and fumaroles and solfatara
near the summit, indicate a hot or cooling magma body still present
beneath the volcano, so that Damavand is a potentially active volcano.
The most important of these hot springs are located in Abe Garm Larijan
in a village by the name Larijan in the district of Larijan in Lar
Valley. The water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic
wounds and skin diseases. Near these springs there are public baths
with small pools for public use.
The best major settlement for mountain climbers is the new Iranian
Mountain Federation Camp in Polour village, located on the south of the
mountain. There are at least 16 known routes to the summit which have
different difficulties. Some of them are very dangerous and requires
rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has
step stamps and also a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp/Shelter. The
longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach
the summit starting from downhill village of Nandal and a night stay at
Takht-e Fereydoun, a two-story shelter. The western route is famous for
its sunset view. S?morgh shelter in this route at 4100 m (about 13,500
ft) is a newly constructed shelter with two stories. There is a frozen
waterfall/Icefall (Abshar Yakhi) about 12m tall and the elevation of
5100m is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.